EL CONTEXTO DE LA LECTURA
Las Pistas del Texto Mismo que Llevan al Significado de la Palabra Desconocida
En la página principal "Pistas" leímos lo siguiente:
Podemos encontrar pistas a la comprensión de nuestra lectura con dos diferentes tácticas.
1. Podemos fijarnos en el texto mismo de la frase que leemos, concentrándonos en a.) la parte de la oración, ó en b.) las palabras pistas que indican el contraste o la comparación.
2. Además, podemos emplear todo el contexto más amplio de la lectura y toda nuestra experiencia vivida y poderes de razonamiento y lógica para llegar al significado de la palabra desconocida.
1. EL CONTEXTO COMO LA MEJOR GUIA A LA COMPRENSIÓN DE LA LECTURA
FRAMEWORK BASED CLUES
En las otras páginas que dependen de la sección "Pistas" aprendiste a usar las pistas a la comprensión brindadas por : 1. las partes de la oración, 2. las palabras-pistas de comparación, 3. las palabras-pistas de contraste. Estas son las pistas que están en el texto mismo.
To find meanings from text-based clues (like contrast clues, comparison clues), you looked for clues in the sentence itself.
Hay otra forma de llegar al significado de palabras que no conoces. Es una forma de leer que no depende de palabras-pista.
A second kind of clue does not rely on specific words or punctuation marks to indicate meaning. This kind of context clue is called framework-based.
Your knowledge of the meanings of surrounding words helps you discover the meaning of a word or of a sentence. The background information you find in these frameworks helps you get the meanings of new words. Common sense and your knowledge of the parts of speech also help in defining unknown words. You combine your experience with what the text contains to determine meaning.
Ejemplo de Pista Sacada del Contexto "Framework Based Clue":
El chofer furioso gritó vehementemente durante la discusión con el otro conductor.
¿Qué sigifica la palabra vehementemente? Bueno, sabes lo que significa la palabra furioso y sabes como se expresa la gente durante una discusión. Con este contexto, puedes suponerte que "vehementemente" tiene algo que ver con una emoción fuerte. Encontraste el significado de una palabra nueva a base de tu propia experiencia.
The angry driver shouted vehemently during his fight with the other driver. What does vehemently mean? You know what angry means, and you know how people feel when they argue. From this, you can figure out that vehemently has something to do with strong emotion or intense feeling. This is an example of using framework-based context to find the meanings of new words. The meaning you find comes from your personal experience.
A veces, cuesta un poco más llegar al sentido de una palabra desconocida. Ayuda formular una pregunta basada en el lugar de la palabra en el contexto. La respuesta a la pregunta te dará el significado de la palabra.
Sometimes it takes a bit more detective work to puzzle out the meaning of an unfamiliar word. In such cases, you must draw conclusions based on the information given with the word. Asking yourself questions about the passages may help you make a fairly accurate guess about the meaning of the unfamiliar word. Each of the sentences below is followed by a question. Think about each question; using your common sense and asking yourself a question about the sentence you should be able to know the correct meaning of the italicized word.
2. John always praised his bosses; he always agreed with what they said. He said he was just a good employee but his friends said he was a sycophant. (What behaviors were his friends describing with the word they put on John?)
3. The car wash we organized to raise funds was a fiasco -it rained all day. (How successful would a car wash be on a rainy day?)
PISTAS ENCONTRADAS EN EL CONTEXTO DE
First Practice: NOW DO THESE!... Usa las preguntas para ayudarte a encontrar el significado de la palabra en cursiva.
1. Jamal didn't want to tell Tina the entire plot of the movie, so he just gave her the gist of the story. (What would Jamal tell Tina?)
2. The lizard was so lethargic that I wasn't sure if it was alive or dead. It didn't even blink. (How active is this lizard?)
3. After the accident, I was angered when the other driver told the police officer a complete, fabrication about what happened. He made it seem that I was the only person at fault. (How truthful was the other driver's information?)
4. The public knows very little about the covert activities of CIA spies. (What kind of activities would the CIA spies be involved in that the public wouldn't know much about?)
5. Whether or not there is life in outer space is an enigma. We may never know for sure until we are capable of space travel or aliens actually land on our planet. (What would we call something to which we have no answer?)
6. Suicide rates tend to fluctuate with the seasons, with much higher rates in the winter than in the summer. (What happens to the suicide rate from season to season?)
7. Human beings are resilient creatures -they can often bounce back from negative experiences and adjust well to life. (What point is the author making about the nature of human beings ?)
8. A major accomplishment of the field of sociology is dispelling the myths and prejudices that groups of people have about each other. (What would teachers of sociology do to "myths and prejudices" that could be considered a "major accomplishment"?)
9. When he first heard the news that he had lost the job, Peter showed a pugnacious attitude. But later when other alternatives were explained to him, he became less hostile. (What attitude would you feel when you lose your job and which could get better ?
Second Practice: NOW DO THESE!... Ahora, haz tú la pregunta necesaria para las oraciones que siguen.
1. In an attack of delirium, the crazed patient hit the nurse.
2. The actor played his role in the farce with a straight face controlling his laughter as he read his lines from the script.
3. The buyers considered the older models of the machines to be obsolete. They said that the newer machines had more modern technology, better features, and were more economical.
4. Lucy's exhilaration about the good pay and generous benefits of her new job disappeared after she realized that she had to move to another city.
5. The farmer impaled the poisonous snake with a sharp stick.
6. The man made a lascivious remark to the woman which made her highly embarrassed and angry.
7. Headhunters in the jungle kill animals with a small but lethal dose of poison.
8. The old man was always morose. He never smiled or expressed any pleasure.
9. Perhaps a refund will pacify the unhappy customer.
10. Ramón likes to tinker with computers as a hobby.
Trata de encontrar el significado de estas palabras.
Busca las respuestas en: http://www.inglesparalatinos.com/respuestascontexto.htm
Frank Gerace Laruffa, Ph.D. aparte de su trabajo en las universidades estatales y privadas de la zona andina, ha participado en proyectos de Comunicación y Educación en Bolivia, Ecuador, y Perú. Su libro, "Comunicación Horizontal: Cambio de Estructuras y Movilización Social" fue pieza clave del planteo latinoamericano de las comunicaciones populares. Últimamente, se dedica a la enseñanza del Inglés a estudiantes inmigrantes en la Universidad LaGuardia Community College/CUNY en la ciudad de Nueva York. Mantiene el sitio web: http://www.InglesParaLatinos.com.